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This measuring method is where you stand back and measure an object in the real world according to a fixed point - usually a pencil held at an arm’s length, and then scale it up or down according to your needs.


Constitutes the block in phase where you work inside a broad shape, then onto smaller shapes for smaller parts of the image, starting broadly at first until you reach a certain degree of refinement.

Positive & Negative Space:

Is the area in and around that object which can either advance or recede, the area around the object is what defines the boundaries.

Implied Line:

This is a series of points in the image that suggest a path for the eye to follow.

Comparative Measuring:

Determining the length or width of an object by comparing it with another, e.g., the length of the torso compared to the size of the head.

Relational Measuring:

Well coordinated critical points of departure to confirm the locations of other points, basically orientating the relationships around each other.

Convexity on the body is a “Fullness” or is outwardly rounded, with a point of origin, an apogee [highest point], and an insertion point at the end. They are either “Continuous” which means they are either fluid and seamless, or “Discrete” which means each form is distinct.

Length and Tilt:

These describe the qualities of every line, which combine to create the inclination and dynamism of every shape.


Using two or more points to locate a single new point e.g., “non-parallelism” which is comparing the sides of the same form to make sure they are asymmetrical.

Calliper Vision:

A process of measuring two points on opposite sides of the form.


The division of planes on a canvas according to Foreground, Middle ground, and Background, or in figurative painting this is the proximity of a character to the viewer.


Divisions either by grids or by diagonals e.g., Thales Theorem or an architectural façades ground plan.


[A]    To attain true realism, first you must choose a canvas that is the optimal size for the room in which it is to be displayed in, then understand the optimal viewing distance. By doubling or tripling the longest edge once you have found the ratio for the room.

[B]    2”x2” square canvas = 4” or 6” vantage point.

[C]    Use this ratio of the vantage point to measure the scene and find the optimal Viewpoint from which to paint the scene from e.g.:

[D]    With a 2” side times by a 4” vantage point = 8” from the scene in the real world with a 2”x2” square canvas.


Line Drawing:

· Alignments are the angles and lines that form positive and negative shapes.

· Landmarks are used to scale and connect disparate parts of an image.

· Proportion is used to create perspective e.g., Geometric and Iso-Metric Perspective.

· Direction of energy of the lines in the composition or “Rhythm”.

· Character is either open or closed or blocking you.

· Personality is either leaning in or leaning away.


Mass Drawing:

· The “Essence” is basically the simplest forms the object can be built with i.e., Square or Cube, Circle or Sphere, triangle or Pyramid, and Tube.

· Pose is the silhouette formed by the person or object forming one large shape.

· Clothes are either hanging, draping, stretching, or compressing.

· Volume caused by scale, values, and shadows.


The relationship the characters have to the viewer and between themselves.

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