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The size of the support depends on the scale of the objects to be placed within it, hence the scale and format of a canvas is the first determinant of the mood you want to create in a painting.

Abstract Pattern:

The collection of shapes on the canvas.


Can be used on the reference material to compare the scale of  the scene and objects therein to the scale of your canvas and objects therein.


A work of art must be the same size as the object to be called “Life-Sized”.


The Seven Design Ideas:

Unity, Contrast, Dominance, Repetition, Harmony, Balance, Gradation.


The Seven Design Marks:

Line, Shape, Tone, Colour, Texture, Size, Direction.


Extrusions and Expressions:

Diagrams based on volume, either by adding or subtracting volumes to create a new volume.



Montage that has been assembled as a digestible fantasy.


A Sketch Copy is very generally matching the colours, tones, and forms of the original, which is used as an exercise in skill and for reference. Where as an Exact Copy is following the exact process and methods of the original.


The Gesture or flow of the form through the composition otherwise known as the inner curve, this can either be “active” which is bundled up and contracted, or “passive” which is stretched out, usually both exist at the same time on the one form.


A Packed Form is the hierarchical stacking of smaller forms upon larger forms.


Lost and Found Edges running a brush along the edge perpendicular to the interchange, where as Hard and Soft edges are running a brush at right angles directly over the interchange, and Feathery edges are circular motions along the interchange.


The Treatment is how “Resolved” a painting is, depends on how much of a finish or otherwise you would like the artwork to have.


Short and diagonal.


Long and diagonal.


wet-on-wet blobs.


Scratching into wet paint.


Bold mark-making done in broad strokes with a large brush.



Under-Painting is a black, white, and grey initial block in of the composition to establish volume, placement, and values.


A Translucent wash used to tone the canvas first before painting.


A lean, transparent, and neutral under painting.


A thin, lean, and transparent layer of colour.


A thick, fat, and transparent layer of colour.


A rough, vigorous, and more directly applied opaque colour.


Inside Drawing is the tonal progression on the inside of the form, which is dictated by the Local Tone, Distance from the light source, strength of the light source and whether the surface is glossy/satin/matt. In which there is frontal light, three quarter light, half-light, and rim light.



The study of shadows.


Heavy use of shadows.


A lighter halo effect at the edges of shadows.

Atmospheric Light:

An all-encompassing secondary light from the sky.

Direct Light:

One single concentrated light source.


Light burning out details then shimmering or reflecting onto other objects.

Reflected Light:

Light that strikes one object and then reflects onto another.


Is the brightest portion of the object that usually is facing the light directly.

Light Plane:

The side of the object facing the light.


The slightly oblique side neither in light nor shadow.

Shadow Plane:

The side of the object facing away from the light.


A dark shape caused by a lack of light entering that area.

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