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Vantage Point:

A viewpoint from which the viewer has of the scene.


Golden Section:

Divide the canvas by 2:62.


Give objects differing spaces from the edges of the canvas, e.g. group objects at uneven intervals i.e. 1,3,5,7,9,11 and of differing sizes and shapes.

Overlapping objects can deceive the eye into seeing recession.



Opposing design ideas used to create tension, Or the use of opposing design marks used to create balance.



The change in difference of two or more elements that oppose each other.



A primary area of emphasis that is the most interesting to look at, and secondary areas of emphasis are what supports the main centre of interest.


Picture Plane

The flat plane at the end of your vision of a scene and it encompasses the picture you want to paint.


Selective Focus:

When the object in the centre of your vision is in sharp focus and everything else is fuzzy and out of focus.


Vanishing Point/s:

Point/s on the horizon line that all the objects slant toward creating perspective.


Linear Perspective:

One point perspective and defines only the form.

Multi-Point Perspective:

An oblique view that defines the space the object is in.


Isometric Perspective:

Based on multi-point perspective containing multiple objects e.g. a Diagram or a Relief.


Geometric Perspective:

A lot like Isometric Perspective but Foreshortened to deceive the eye.


Atmospheric Perspective:

Smaller, Less Detailed, Cooler, Duller, Darker, Softer, Greyer, Fuzzier, Neutral recedes.




Larger, More Detailed, Warmer, Lighter, Sharper, Stronger, Clearer, Brighter advances.


Based on the theory of unified harmonic resonance due to the “Eyes” or intersections of all the angles drawn to form shapes or travel lines, usually from a half, quarter, or three-quarter point from the edge of the canvas.


Root Rectangle:

The height VS width correlation of the edges of the canvas when you draw a line from the centre of the bottom line to a corner and then drop it down: This forms from a root 1 rectangle a Root 2 rectangle of 1.41 and a Root 3 rectangle is 1.73 and a Root 4 is 2 and a Root 5 rectangle is 2.23 Etc.


Visual Hierarchy:

Is where you create a primary, secondary, and tertiary focal point to guide the viewers eye through the picture, this can be done using colour, edges, shapes, composition whatever, so long as there is a main area with a few other subordinate areas in the picture.



The composition reads from front to back and has deeper recession looking down on top.



The composition reads from Left to Right and you are looking straight on, with a level eye line.

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